Adult Diapers

Hacking someone’s internet search history is always fun, but it’s especially joyous when the victim is Hillary Rodham Clinton.  According to reports, not only has she been searching online for adult diapers, but specifically those that are ‘durable’.  In other words, this woman knows way more about adult diapers than I ever did.

 

I had not given much thought to adult diapers until I took on the task of dealing with the house that was built by Arlene, the mother of Larry Nichols.  Larry is the famous ‘Clinton Insider’ who claims to have killed many people so that the Clintons could come to power.

 

The diapers didn’t belong to Arlene; she died long before those things appeared.   Her house was taken over by a Pirate Witch, who lived in it for about 20 years, who is now also gone and the house is mine for a while, but the many packages of adult diapers were left behind.

 

The house was built at the height of the introduction of the Illegal Cocaine Business Model for the American Economy, but the lady who built it didn’t participate in that economy.

 

This house was built with money earned by the family.  Arlene’s mother, who was a Disney cartoonist with her father, and who had invested wisely, left a number of houses in a Trust for the children.  According to the correspondence between Arlene Nichols and her father, it was Arlene’s mother, Honey, who created the fabulous cartoon Fantasia, and I promise you this woman didn’t take LSD. What she was very good at was painting flowers on porcelain and decorating elaborate cakes.

 

Arlene’s father, Larry Nichol’s grandfather, created the Flintstones and Mickey and Minnie Mouse, and he was still working well into his 80’s because Larry embezzled his own mother’s estate after her death, depriving his father of income in old age.  There was some negotiation between Arlene and her father, and the Fantasia cels (cellulose original drawings for cartoons) were supposed to have been sent to Arlene.  I don’t know what happened to them.

 

 

Larry is still ripping off old women, according to Stew Webb reports.  Stew knew him and speaks of him often, though not well. Stew was one of the first to report the Satanic activities of our world leaders in Denver.  He unwittingly married a girl from Denver who had been a victim of Satanic abuse by her own father, Leonard Feldman.  Stew usually calls him Leonard Millman, but he slips every now and then and says ‘Feldman’ instead, and if you look up the family of Bibi Netanyahoo, you’ll find one of his sons also using the name Feldman as a stage name.  The connections are numerous.

 

Stew points out that the Larry Nichol’s connection had to do with a member of Frank Sinatra’s band.  This is someone who would probably have Loreauville connections, and I will guess at this point that the last name of this band member is Verret.  However, I’ll continue researching that topic in other articles.  This one is about Belladonna.

 

Arlene Nicholls disowned Larry after that embezzlement of the family money.  Poor thing, she had become pregnant for him when she was 16, and he was born just when she turned 17.  Arlene had a promising career ahead as a figure skater.  I have photos of her skating in a Minnie Costume, and I have her ice skates in a child’s size, but she did continue to be an expert in body building and personal training, and she studied art.  Arlene married Mr. Hargraves, the father, so Larry’s real name is Hargraves, Larry August Hargraves. August is his grandfather Nicholls’ middle name.

 

Arlene Nicholls planted a Belladonna tree in front of the house when it was built in the 1980’s.  I know because she took so many photos of the event.  This week I cut the plant down, it was so overgrown and evil looking and too close to the house, but there are three more nearby.   I grew up hearing people call that tree Belladonna, because that’s what all the older people called it, and no one ever argued the matter.  However, in this day of flexible truth and Narcissistic Personality Disorder, if you call it Belladonna you’ll get a fierce argument over it, and you won’t win in an argument with a hard-headed idiot whose acetylcholine is being inhibited by the drug Prednizone.  I will explain.

 

Tired of hearing ignorance spouted as if it were the height of medical wisdom, I decided to do a little research, since I’ve also been researching a drug called Prednizone, which I’ve traced to being the culprit behind memory loss and paranoia that is so prevalent today, especially among the elderly.   Even the scientists doing research have to deal with the various names given this plant.

 

What I found is that the two subjects of my research, Prednizone and Angel’s Trumpet/Belladonna, coincide 100% in terms of their chemical composition.  Belladonna has a drying out effect, which would naturally result in increased urination, but scientists have also noted in study results that the sound and feeling of defecation, under the influence of Belladonna and Prednizone, completely disappears.   This would certainly bring on the need for adult diapers, even though some reports claim that some element within Belladonna caused constipation and urine retention, others claim that it causes loss of control of both.

 

 

Atropa belladonna, commonly known as belladonna or deadly nightshade, is a perennial herbaceous plant (rhizomatous hemicryptophyte) in the tomato family Solanaceae, native to Europe, North Africa, and Western Asia. Its distribution extends from Great Britain in the west to western Ukraine and the Iranian province of Gilan in the east.

 

It is also naturalised and/or introduced in some parts of Canada and the United States. The foliage and berries are extremely toxic, containing tropane alkaloids. These toxins include atropine, scopolamine and hyoscyamine, which cause a bizarre delirium and hallucinations,[1] and are also used as pharmaceutical anticholinergics.

It has a long history of use as a medicine, cosmetic, and poison. Before the Middle Ages, it was used as an anesthetic for surgery; the ancient Romans used it as a poison; and, predating this, it was used to make poison-tipped arrows. The genus name Atropa comes from Atropos, one of the three Fates in Greek mythology, and the name “bella donna” is derived from Italian and means “pretty woman” because the herb was used in eye-drops by women to dilate the pupils of the eyes to make them appear seductive.[2][3]

Prednizone

 

The nursing lesson contained in the video below explains what Prednizone is made from and what it is used for.  The most common excuse for prescribing Prednizone is as an ‘Anti-Inflamatory’.  However, the inflamed area around a wound is the body’s natural process of healing, so this interference starts a process of malfunction in the body that requires a never ending loop of medications.

 

The comments about Prednizone on YouTube are hilarious.  For example:

 

 

nocturnalserpent11 months ago

is there a problem with this medicine?

Jared Larner1 year ago

Just a question, “increased inflammation cases decreased perfusion” … can you explain a bit further since I thought the inflammation was caused by the vessels widening to bring in the extra blood cells to fight infection and I thought that would bring in more RBC which carry O2 which I thought would result in increased perfusion

Matthew Darke1 year ago

I’d rather die than to take that shit again!!!! Doctors try to give me that again I’ll tell them to stick it up your ass doc

 

Scopolamine

 

The ingredient ‘scopolamine’ is one of Belladonna’s main components, and it’s known on the street as the ‘date-rape drug’.  This is the reason I focused on scopolamine in searching for the source of memory erase drugs, and it led me directly to Bella Donna and Prednizone.  Both also produce blurred vision, which has been noted in Hillary, and which was also suffered by Larry Nichol’s mom, which I learned from reading Arlene’s notes and seeing the thick eyeglasses which she wore toward the end of her life.

 

Another poisonous component of both Belladonna and Prednizone is Atropine, also explained in this and other lessons for nursing students found on this channel:

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Oyv5gsa1Nvk

 

Atropine Effects

 

Pub Med provided this information:

 

A case report was presented of occupational atropine poisoning of a female respiratory therapist through aerosol administration to patients. The 28 yr old subject presented to the emergency room with anxiety, palpitations, dry mouth, blurred vision, and feeling dizzy, hot and flushed. She was employed as a respiratory therapist and had given atropine-sulfate ten times during the preceding 24 hours.

 

Atropine poisoning was diagnosed and she was placed in a dark quiet room and put on a monitor. She was given water to drink and diphenhydramine, 25 mg orally for her restlessness. She was discharged after she improved over the next 2 hours. Her blurred vision, insomnia, and restlessness resolved gradually over the next 48 hours without recurrence or complication.

 

Occupationally acquired atropine poisoning may be an unanticipated risk for certain respiratory personnel.

 

While these symptoms have been described in patients receiving nebulized anticholinergics [anyone suffering from Asthma, including very young children], they had not previously been reported in those who give these aerosols.
[Larkin GL; Lancet 337 (8746): 917 (1991)] **PEER REVIEWED**

 

Abstract

“Atropa belladonna L. (Solanaceae) tincture with atropine was studied for its anticholinergic activity, both in vivo and in vitro. In all tests, the biological activity of A. belladonna resulted greater than that suggested by its alkaloid content.

The results suggest the presence in A. belladonna leaves of unknown compounds that produce significant biological activity.”

 

This term ‘significant biological activity” is not defined in the research abstract, so I will guess that it refers to the constant defecation and urination. If you want to pay for the entire report you can verify this.

 

Another abstract about Belladonna reports that:

In humans, its anti-cholinergic properties cause the disruption of cognitive capacities, such as memory and learning.[24]

Acetylcholine is the necessary ingredient in the brain for memory and learning.  Anti-cholinergics get rid of acetylcholine and thus, no big surprise, the mental capacities are diminished.  This effect is covered in medical detail in the book “From Messengers to Molecules: Memories are Made of These”

By Gernot Riedel, Bettina Platt

 

The excuse for prescribing Anti-cholinergic agents is to make the blood flow better due to the tachycardiac effect.  In other words, the tachycardia side effect is claimed as a beneficial effect in certain cases.  However, even short term use of anti-cholinergics can create such stupid behavior as cutting off of one’s penis and tongue as reported below, or another report that I have heard personally, the eating of one’s arm in the belief that it was a Poboy sandwhich.

 

Anticholinergics are explained in this nursing lesson:

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8XnSTedFhvM

 

The interference with the parasympathetic nervous system would logically make control of all natural bodily functions impossible.

In 2009, A. belladonna berries were mistaken for blueberries by an adult woman; the six berries she ate were documented to result in severe anticholinergic syndrome.[27]

This definition of anticholinergic explains how the blockage of acetylcholine affects the natural action of the gastrointestinal tract, the urinary tract and the lungs, which would give a reason for Hillary’s coughing fits and her adult diapers.

“An anticholinergic agent is a substance that blocks the neurotransmitter acetylcholine in the central and the peripheral nervous system. Anticholinergics inhibit parasympathetic nerve impulses by selectively blocking the binding of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine to its receptor in nerve cells. The nerve fibers of the parasympathetic system are responsible for the involuntary movement of smooth muscles present in the gastrointestinal tract, urinary tract, lungs, and many other parts of the body. Anticholinergics are divided into three categories in accordance with their specific targets in the central and/or peripheral nervous system: antimuscarinic agents, ganglionic blockers, and neuromuscular blockers.[1]

Or put more simply, this report states that:

“Belladonna’s deadly symptoms are caused by atropine’s disruption of the parasympathetic nervous system‘s ability to regulate involuntary activities, such as sweating, breathing, digestion and heart rate. The antidote for belladonna poisoning is physostigmine or pilocarpine, the same as for atropine.[28]

 

The active agents in belladonna, atropine, hyoscine (scopolamine), and hyoscyamine, have anticholinergic properties.[23][24]

 

The symptoms of belladonna poisoning include dilated pupils, sensitivity to light, blurred vision, tachycardia, loss of balance, staggering, headache, rash, flushing, severely dry mouth and throat, slurred speech, confusion, hallucinations, delirium, and convulsions.[23][25][26]

 

 

It occurs to me that there must be a high industrial demand for Belladonna, so I decided to see where it grows best, and I found that it has been cultivated in the western Ukraine and Persia for thousands of years and still is.  I find a great deal of warfare being conducted in those regions today.

This link demonstrates the advanced level of research into the cultivation of Belladonna:  http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16794738

 

 

 

The confusion between Bella Donna  . (Solanaceae) and Angel’s Trumpet (Datura suaveolens) increases with time, thanks to disinformation trolls who work for the pharmaceuticals.  Another article entitled ‘Captagon’ which I published recently details the exact addresses of the pharmaceutical companies that create and distribute these drugs. The main factories for their production are in North Korea.

 

From Eur Arch Psychiatry Clin Neurosci. 2006 Oct;256(7):458-9. Epub 2006 Jun 16:

How important is acetylcholine to human survival?

Self-amputation of penis and tongue after use of Angel’s Trumpet.

Marneros A1, Gutmann P, Uhlmann F.

Author information

Abstract

This case report draws attention to the dramatic consequences of the consumption of Angel’s Trumpet. Angel’s Trumpet contains alkaloids (especially scopolamine, as well as hyoscyamine, atropine and other alkaloids) in a relatively high concentration.

 

 

In this paper, we report on a young man who amputated his penis and his tongue after having consumed Angel’s Trumpet tea, illustrating that consuming this beautiful flower with the name of an angel and the poison of the devil can be very dangerous.

PMID: 16783491

DOI: 10.1007/s00406-006-0666-2

 

 

 

 

Methyloprednizole is the generic name for Prednizone.

Toxicity

Flowers of belladonna

Belladonna is one of the most toxic plants found in the Eastern Hemisphere.[16]

Belladonna nectar is transformed by bees into honey that also contains tropane alkaloids.[19] The berries pose the greatest danger to children because they look attractive and have a somewhat sweet taste.[13][20][21]

 

The root of the plant is generally the most toxic part, though this can vary from one specimen to another.[22][13][17] Belladonna leaves and berries are gathered in May and June, when the alkaloid content is largest and the berries are almost ripe which makes them suited for medicinal use.

 

The leaves and berries are then dried in a dark and dry place and stored airtight. Fresh belladonna berries are mashed, fermented, and distilled into alcohol.

 

Belladonna dosage depends on the user’s age and health condition. Consumption of one or two fresh belladonna berries mildly affects perception in adults. This effect outsets in one or two hours after the berries have been ingested. Three to four fresh berries act as a psychoactive aphrodisiac, and three to ten berries are a hallucinogenic dose.

 

The lethal dose for adults is ten to twenty berries, depending of the physiological constitution of the consumer. Consumption of two or three berries by children can be lethal. These data notwithstanding, consumption of belladonna should be mindful and generally avoided due to the devastating toxic states that can for some individuals prove lethal even with the minimal dosage.

 

Least dangerous is belladonna consumption in smoking blends with dry fly agaric mushrooms and hemp or as a fumigant. An average internal dose used for medicinal purposes is 0.05 to 0.1 g of dried and powdered leaves.[Lindequist] 30 to 200 mg of dry leaves or 30 to 120 mg of dry roots, either smoked or ingested, have pleasant psychoactive effect.[18]

 

Atropa belladonna is also toxic to many domestic animals, causing narcosis and paralysis.[29] However, cattle and rabbits eat the plant seemingly without suffering harmful effects.[26]

Repeat:

In humans, its anticholinergic properties will cause the disruption of cognitive capacities, such as memory and learning.[24]

Legal status

Belladonna cultivation is legal in Southern and Eastern Europe, Pakistan, North America, and Brazil.[18] All parts of the belladonna plant can be cultivated, bought, kept, and distributed (sold, traded or given) without a legal license or medical prescription in the USA. Sales of belladonna in the USA conform to U.S. supplement laws or are regulated by the FDA.[30] Belladonna leaves and roots can be bought with a medical prescription in pharmacies throughout Germany.[31]

Uses

Cosmetics

The common name belladonna originates from its historic use by women – Bella Donna is Italian for beautiful lady. Drops prepared from the belladonna plant were used to dilate women’s pupils, an effect considered to be attractive and seductive.[2][3] Belladonna drops act as a muscarinic antagonist, blocking receptors in the muscles of the eye that constrict pupil size.[32] Belladonna is currently rarely used cosmetically, as it carries the adverse effects of causing minor visual distortions, inability to focus on near objects, and increased heart rate. Prolonged usage was reputed to cause blindness.[33]

Medicinal uses

Belladonna has been used in herbal medicine for centuries as a pain reliever, muscle relaxer, and anti-inflammatory, and to treat menstrual problems, peptic ulcer disease, histaminic reaction, and motion sickness.[23][34] At least one 19th-century eclectic medicine journal explained how to prepare a belladonna tincture for direct administration to patients.[35]

Belladonna tinctures, decoctions, and powders, as well as alkaloid salt mixtures, are still produced for pharmaceutical use, and these are often standardised at 1037 parts hyoscyamine to 194 parts atropine and 65 parts scopolamine.

 

The alkaloids are compounded with phenobarbital and/or kaolin and pectin for use in digestive disorders. A similar tincture of Datura stramonium was used by doctors in the US until the late 1930s.

 

Cigarettes with belladonna leaves soaked in opium tincture were prescription as recently as 1930. [18] The combination of belladonna and opium, in powder, tincture, or alkaloid form, is particularly useful by mouth or as a suppository for diarrhoea and some forms of visceral pain; it can be made by a compounding pharmacist, and may be available as a manufactured fixed combination product in some countries (e.g., B&O Supprettes). A banana-flavoured liquid (most common trade name: Donnagel PG) was available until 31 December 1992 in the United States.

Scopolamine is used as the hydrobromide salt for gastro-intestinal complaints and motion sickness. It was formerly used in a painkiller called “twilight sleep” in childbirth.[36]

Atropine sulphate is used as a mydriatic [pupil dilation] and cycloplegic for eye examinations. I find it very curious that it is also used as an antidote to organophosphate and carbamate poisoning, and is loaded in an auto-injector for use in case of a nerve gas attack.

Atropinisation (administration of a sufficient dose to block nerve gas effects) results in 100 percent blockade of the muscarinic acetylcholine receptors.

 

Hyoscyamine is used as the sulphate or hydrobromide for gastro-intestinal problems and Parkinson’s disease. Thus it is possible that Bill Clinton is also being prescribed some version of Belladonna, though in reality it can be said that Belladonna actually causes Parkinson’s disease.  Hyoscyamine was the primary alkaloid in Asthmador, a nonpresciption treatment for the relief of bronchial asthma, until Asthmador was discontinued.

latropine, which was purified from belladonna in the 1830s, had accepted medical uses.[26] Donnatal is a prescription pharmaceutical, approved in the United States by the FDA, that combines natural belladonna alkaloids in a specific, fixed ratio with phenobarbital to provide peripheral anticholinergic/antispasmodic action and mild sedation.  In other words Donnatal will make you stupid, as will all anticholinergics.

 

It can be prescribed for irritable bowel syndrome (irritable colon, spastic colon, mucous colitis) and acute enterocolitis.[37]

Berries of belladonna

Alternative-medicinal use

Belladonna preparations are used in homeopathy as treatments for various conditions.[38][39] In clinical use and in research trials, the most common preparation is diluted to the 30C level in homeopathic notation. This level of dilution does not contain any of the original plant,[39] although preparations with lesser dilutions that statistically contain trace amounts of the plant are advertised for sale.[40]

Recreational drug

Atropa belladonna and related plants, such as jimson weed (Datura stramonium), have occasionally been used as recreational drugs because of the vivid hallucinations and delirium they produce. However, these hallucinations are most commonly described as very unpleasant, and recreational use is considered extremely dangerous because of the high risk of unintentional fatal overdose.[41][42][43]

 

The roots are the most toxic, and are the source of the powder substance that is made into various street drugs, often sold in place of cocaine or mixed with cocaine.

 

In addition, the central nervous system effects of atropine include memory disruption, which may lead to severe confusion.[44] The major effects of belladonna consumption last for three to four hours, visual hallucinations can last for three to four days, some negative aftereffects are preserved for several days.[18][45]

 

Belladonna used as a recreational drug is reported to bring about predominantly bad trips that the users want to never repeat in their lives.[45] Trips induced by belladonna are threatening, dark, demonic, hellish, frightening, and terrifying.[18] Occasionally, belladonna can induce out of body experiences,[46] a heightened sense of awareness,[47] and enhance sexual, mystical and lucid dreaming experiences often in combination with other psychoactive plants.[48][49] Positive experiences induced by belladonna consumption are rare.[18]

Poison

The tropane alkaloids of A. belladonna were used as poisons, and early humans made poisonous arrows from the plant.[50] In Ancient Rome, it was used as a poison by Agrippina the Younger, wife of Emperor Claudius on advice of Locusta, a lady specialized in poisons, and Livia, who is rumored to have used it to kill her husband Emperor Augustus.[50][51]

Macbeth of Scotland, when he was still one of the lieutenants of King Duncan I of Scotland, used it during a truce to poison the troops of the invading Harold Harefoot, King of England, to the point that the English troops were unable to stand their ground and had to retreat to their ships.[15]

Folklore

Main articles: European witchcraft and shamanism

Leaves of belladonna

In the past, witches were believed to use a mixture of belladonna, opium poppy and other plants, typically poisonous (such as monkshood and poison hemlock), in flying ointment, which they applied to help them fly to gatherings with other witches.

 

Carlo Ginzburg and others have argued that flying ointments were preparations meant to encourage hallucinatory dreaming; a possible explanation for the inclusion of belladonna and opium poppy in flying ointments concerns the known antagonism between tropane alkaloids of belladonna (to be specific, scopolamine) and opiate alkaloids in the opium poppy, Papaver somniferum (to be specific, morphine), which produces a dream-like waking state.

 

This antagonism was known in folk medicine, discussed in eclectic (botanical) medicine formularies,[52] and posited as the explanation of how flying ointments might have actually worked in contemporary writing on witchcraft.[53] The antagonism between opiates and tropanes is the original basis of the twilight sleep that was provided to Queen Victoria to deaden pain as well as consciousness during childbirth, and that was later modified, and so isolated alkaloids were used instead of plant materials. The belladonna herb was also notable for its unpredictable effects from toxicity.[54][55]

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    “Donnatal Extentabs Prescribing Information”. PBM Pharmaceuticals. 2009. Retrieved 2009-03-04.

    Vaughan, John Griffith; Patricia Ann Judd; David Bellamy (2003). The Oxford Book of Health Foods. Oxford University Press. p. 59. ISBN 0-19-850459-4.

    Brien S, Lewith G, Bryant T (November 2003). “Ultramolecular homeopathy has no observable clinical effects. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled proving trial of Belladonna 30C”. Br J Clin Pharmacol. 56 (5): 562–8. doi:10.1046/j.1365-2125.2003.01900.x. PMC 1884394 . PMID 14651731.

    example of website selling different dilutions of belladonna

    Dewitt MS, Swain R, Gibson LB (1997). “The dangers of jimson weed and its abuse by teenagers in the Kanawha Valley of West Virginia”. West Virginia Medical Journal. 93 (4): 182–5. PMID 9274142.

    Micke MM (October 1996). “The case of hallucinogenic plants and the Internet”. J Sch Health. 66 (8): 277–80. doi:10.1111/j.1746-1561.1996.tb03397.x. PMID 8899584.

    Cummins BM, Obetz SW, Wilson MR (June 1968). “Belladonna poisoning as a facet of pschyodelia”. JAMA. 204 (11): 1011. doi:10.1001/jama.204.11.1011. PMID 5694682.

    Hardy TK, Wakely D (1962). “The amnesic properties of hyoscine and atropine in pre-anæsthetic medication”. Anaesthesia. 17 (3): 331–336. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2044.1962.tb13473.x. PMID 13904669.

    “Belladonna Reports.”. erowid.

    “Total Out Of Body Experience.Atropa belladonna.”. erowid.

    “A Heightened Sense of Awareness. Belladonna (berries).”. erowid.

    “Lucid Dreaming. Belladonna.”. erowid.

    “Sensory Illusion Destroyed. Mushrooms, Belladonna & Brugmansia.”. erowid.

    Michael (1998). Alkaloids : biochemistry, ecology, and medicinal applications. New York: Plenum Press. p. 20. ISBN 0-306-45465-3.

    Timbrell, John (2005). The poison paradox : chemicals as friends and foes. Oxford: Oxford Univ. Pr. p. 2. ISBN 0-19-280495-2.

    “Belladonna.—Belladonna”. Henrietta’s Herbal. Retrieved 2008-07-08.

    Kuklin, Alexander (February 1999). How Do Witches Fly?. DNA Press. ISBN 0-9664027-0-7.

    Kowalchik, Claire; Carr A Hylton W (1987). Herb gardening. Rodale. pp. 1 and 158. ISBN 0-87596-964-X.

  1.  Harner, Michael J. (1973). Hallucinogens and Shamanism. Oxford [Oxfordshire]: Oxford University Press. pp. 123–150. ISBN 0-19-501649-1.

Further reading

  “Compounds in deadly nightshade”. USDA, ARS, National Genetic Resources Program. Phytochemical and Ethnobotanical Databases. Beltsville, Maryland: National Germplasm Resources Laboratory. Retrieved 2005-07-28.

  Rita P.; Animesh D.K. “An updated overview on Atropa belladonna L” (PDF). International Research Journal of Pharmacy.

  Berdai, Mohamed Adnane; Labib, Smael; Chetouani, Khadija; Harandou, Mustapha (17 April 2012). “Atropa Belladonna intoxication: a case report”. Pan African Medical Journal. 11: 72. PMC 3361210 . PMID 22655106.

 

This is a government sponsored website giving the full toxic run-down on scopolamine.

 

 

https://toxnet.nlm.nih.gov/cgi-bin/sis/search2/r?dbs+hsdb:@term+@rn+51-34-3

 

The plant Bella Donna is called

Atropa belladonna

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

“Deadly Nightshade” redirects here. For the 1953 British film, see Deadly Nightshade (film).

Atropa belladonna
Illustration from Köhler’s Medicinal Plants 1887
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Plantae
Order: Solanales
Family: Solanaceae
Genus: Atropa
Species: A. belladonna
Binomial name
Atropa belladonna
L.

 

 

 

Proof of name change of this plant is contained in this abstract dealing with a disease affecting the Belladonna plant:

Acta Virol. 2005;49(2):117-22.

Occurrence of Colombian datura virus in Brugmansia hybrids, Physalis peruviana L. and Solanum muricatum Ait. in Hungary.

Salamon P1, Palkovics L.

Quoted from this report:

“Since the botanical genus name of original hosts of CDV has changed from Datura to Brugmansia, we propose to change the virus name from CDV to Angel trumpet mosaic virus (ATMV).”

PMID:

16047739

 

 

2003 Aug;15(4):376-82.

Presumed Angel’s trumpet (Brugmansia) poisoning: clinical effects and epidemiology.

Isbister GK1, Oakley P, Dawson AH, Whyte IM.

Abstract

OBJECTIVE:

To investigate the pattern and epidemiology of anticholinergic plant poisoning, and to characterize its time course and clinical features.

METHODS:

We reviewed all anticholinergic plant poisonings using a prospective database of all poisonings admitted to a major toxicology unit in Australia. All patients that presented with anticholinergic plant poisoning between July 1990 and June 2000 were included. Patient demographics, details of poisoning, diagnostic clinical features, adverse effects (seizures, arrhythmias, hypotension, accidental injury), and treatments required were obtained. Important diagnostic features were analysed and compared to previous studies.

RESULTS:

Thirty-three patients were presumed to have ingested Brugmansia spp. (Angel’s trumpet) based on their description of the plant; median age 18 years (interquartile range 16-20); 82% males.

 

Thirty-one ingested a brewed tea or parts of the plant (flower).

 

All parts of the plant contain tropane alkaloids.[17] Roots have up to 1.3%, leaves 1.2%, stalks 0.65%, flowers 0.6%, ripe berries 0.7%, and seeds 0.4% tropane alkaloids; leaves reach maximal alkaloid content when the plant is budding and flowering, roots are most poisonous in the end of the plant’s vegetation period.[18]

This study is based on the parts of the plant that are least toxic, the flower and leaves.  The season in which they are picked also affects the toxicity.

Therefore, this study is of no use for determining the effect of the street drugs made from this plant.

Thirty-one used it recreationally. Common clinical features were: mydriasis [pupil dilation] (100%), mean duration 29 hours and delirium (88%) with a mean duration of 18 hours.

 

Tachycardia only occurred in 11 of the 33 patients (33%). In 24 patients where the time of ingestion was certain, 7 of 8 (88%) patients presenting within 5 hours had tachycardia and only 5 out of 16 (31%) presenting after 5 hours had tachycardia.

There were no deaths, seizures or arrhythmias (excepting tachycardia). One patient had hypotension and two sustained accidental traumatic injuries.

Nineteen patients required sedation, mainly with benzodiazepines. Physostigmine was used diagnostically in eight cases.

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